The Motley Fool’s Interview With Cryptocurrency Expert Nic Carter

As a part of our Bitcoin (CRYPTO:BTC) Day protection on March 18, our personal chief progress officer, Anand Chokkavelu, sat down for a chat with cryptocurrency knowledgeable and enterprise capitalist Nic Carter on Fool Live. In this interview, Nic shares his ideas on Bitcoin, different cryptocurrencies, the way forward for cash and finance, the NFT funding pattern, and way more. 

Anand Chokkavelu: Hi. I’m Anand Chokkavelu, and our subsequent visitor on Bitcoin Day right here on Motley Fool Live is Nic Carter. His crypto waters run deep. He was Fidelity’s first crypto-analyst. He co-founded Coin Metrics, whose mission is to empower individuals to make knowledgeable crypto monetary choices. It sounds rather a lot like The Motley Fool within the broader investing world. He’s a enterprise capitalist at Castle Island, the place they make investments solely in blockchain firms. He’s bringing a variety of data to the desk, and he’ll share it with us right now. Thanks for spending a while with us right now, Nic.

Nic Carter: My pleasure. Thanks, Anand.

Chokkavelu: Well, Nic, as our title suggests, we’re a motley group of buyers, however most of us are primarily buyers within the inventory market. I’d enterprise that almost all of our members and readers and viewers do not personal any Bitcoin or different cryptocurrency. Can you make the elevator pitch for why somebody ought to contemplate Bitcoin?

Carter: Well, I’d say, initially, it is a wager on a novel financial system, and if that is fascinating to you, if you’re disaffected with the present financial system and also you’re in search of some various financial guidelines which can be nondiscretionary, that strip human decision-making from that system, then you definitely may discover Bitcoin enticing. If you might be actually serious about nonstate shops of worth like gold, you may wish to give Bitcoin a glance. But it is definitely a reasonably novel factor. It’s exterior of lots of people’s consolation zone. I’m not suggesting that it must be part of everybody’s portfolio or something like that. But before everything, it is a wager on a brand new financial system.

Then past that, it is an index on the expansion of this crypto economic system, which is now dramatically grown, and Bitcoin is a strategy to get publicity to that. So it is a progress wager, after which in some ways you might consider it as a hedge, though it does not at all times behave as one.

Chokkavelu: Right. Being lower than 20 years outdated, it is onerous to get the info on all of that correlation kind of issues.

Carter: Yeah, it is solely been round actually for 12 years. It’s solely meaningfully been financialized, I’d say, since 2014, 2015. Frankly, we do not know what the correlation traits are of Bitcoin, what they will be in the long run. But to me it is sufficiently fascinating that I made a decision to spend my profession on it.

Chokkavelu: Right on. We talked a bit about investing in Bitcoin. For a daily investor who as we all know has by no means invested in cryptocurrency, desires some publicity however does not need a variety of problem, what would your recommendation be in the event that they got here to you and mentioned, “Hey, what ought to I do? What’s the simplest factor to complement my inventory portfolio?”

Carter: Well, there’s clearly 1000’s of various cryptocurrencies obtainable. I feel it is very simple to get distracted and to attempt to wager on Bitcoin killers or new base gamers or new sensible contract protocols or meme cash. There’s an enormous quantity of noise within the trade and a variety of malinvestment and misspent exercise. I feel Bitcoin, it is not precisely the very best beta asset within the crypto area. You’re going to seek out extra risky belongings, if that is the place you are in search of, in case you’re in search of volatility and pleasure.

But to me, Bitcoin is admittedly a very powerful phenomenon throughout the crypto area. It’s a brand new financial system. It has that credibility. A number of these different crypto belongings are shallow imitations of it. Certainly there are fascinating issues happening past Bitcoin, however I’d simply begin with Bitcoin, making an attempt to know that system within the first place, and attempt to deeply grasp the issues that make it distinctive, and why it is endured 12 years and why it is shrugged off so many opponents in that point.

A small quantity of Bitcoin publicity can be what I’d suggest, such that folks can tolerate the volatility of the asset, which is extremely excessive, so measurement it accordingly. Bitcoin has annualized volatility of 80%-100%. If you wish to goal a stage of danger in your portfolio, you wish to measurement your wager accordingly.

Chokkavelu: Related query I do know I get requested rather a lot is, “OK, what is the best platform to make use of? What ought to I do? Do I get chilly storage? Do I am going with a supplier?” Have you seen any options that, I imply, clearly, the market’s evolving and issues are higher every year. Have you seen something that is blown your thoughts as a easy turnkey resolution for people?

Carter: No, and admittedly, we’re coping with the encoding of worth in an informational format. And so we’ve for the primary time digital bearer belongings, which implies that in case you lose your non-public key, you’ve got misplaced the worth, proper?

Chokkavelu: The nightmare.

Carter: It’s a novel factor, proper? We did not have that earlier than. And so the final decade, we have been struggling to attempt to construct instruments to make it doable for individuals to have custody of that data on their very own with out the specter of being fragile. That’s actually what we spend money on. That’s an enormous a part of our funding technique as a agency, is making an attempt to spend money on instruments and companies which assist individuals transact and maintain digital belongings.

For the uninitiated and for people that are not holding an enormous quantity of cryptocurrency, actually, custodial service suppliers, there’s just a few which can be extraordinarily credible and that I’d personally belief. Now, if you’re extra paranoid and also you wish to take remaining supply of your cash, that is whenever you begin trying into completely different sorts of cold-storage setups. But that is solely, I’d say, in case you have a extremely significant quantity of coin, and also you wish to take true custody of the equal of storing bars of gold in your basement type of factor. There’s no easy resolution to that drawback. That’s one in every of simply the important thing intractable issues within the trade, is storing worth as data. So it is at all times been a problem, and I feel it will be a problem for a very long time.

Chokkavelu: To be clear for people, whenever you say custodial accounts, you imply locations like Coinbase or Robinhood or Gemini or the Cash App.

Carter: Yeah, there’s important variations between all of them. Robinhood, as an example, you’ll be able to’t withdraw your cash. From Coinbase, Cash App, and Gemini, you’ll be able to. They differ alongside the axes of charges. But I’d say all of these establishments are credible. As lengthy as you’ve got a two-factor authentication arrange, they are a cheap sufficient place to retailer a small quantity of Bitcoin or one other digital asset.

Chokkavelu: Right on. Now, cryptocurrencies, a variety of it’s in regards to the future. Let’s step into the longer term a little bit. I’m certain we’ll come again to this in a bit. What’s one thing within the blockchain-slash-crypto universe most individuals cannot envision right now however they are going to take with no consideration 5 years from now?

Carter: Yeah, it is an incredible query. Beyond only a financial transformation, shifting to a brand new customary, I feel in all probability probably the most fascinating phenomena that is taking place within the crypto area is the so-called DWeb, or decentralized Web providers. The goal right here is to take sure infrastructural elements of the web and strip them from these knowledge silos that function in Silicon Valley and train a variety of management over the web and restore energy into the palms of customers by creating protocols, successfully, that handle the availability of DWeb sources, versus having corporates management them.

Specifically, one class can be decentralized cloud storage, which is now reaching a threshold of maturity. That’s fairly spectacular. You can truly use these protocols now. Filecoin (CRYPTO:FIL) was a extremely hotly mentioned launch earlier this yr. You even have Sia, Arweave. We’re not recommending any of these specifically, however all these methods work, which is the necessary factor. In 2017, we had plenty of preliminary coin choices round the same such concepts, however little or no of this infrastructure truly features. Today, you’ll be able to truly use the methods to retailer knowledge on a peer-to-peer mannequin such that you’ve got robust assurances that that knowledge continues to be going to be there whenever you wish to retrieve it. What that permits you to do is to route across the centralized web gatekeepers that management and train censorship over our on-line selves. That’s a wonkish infrastructure change the place whether or not it is Amazon S3 or whether or not it is Filecoin that you just’re sending out your knowledge to. But I feel it has rippling results on the entire topology of the web.

I do consider that in 5 years or so, we’ll have much more energy and management over our on-line footprint. Whether meaning renormalizing the notion of working your individual e mail server or actually proudly owning your on-line footprint, not farming out your weblog to WordPress or a 3rd social gathering however truly with the ability to administer it your self. Having these social media methods the place you are the little proprietor in a bodily sense and a authorized sense of the info that you just’re serving as much as some social media community, to me, that is probably the most fascinating factor past simply this financial system that is being proposed, is mainly a brand new topology for the web totally.

Chokkavelu: For the parents who perhaps aren’t partaking as a lot within the precise manufacturing on the web and simply residing their lives, are there any issues they’re going to be touched by, no matter what they’re fearful about, blockchain or crypto belongings, and simply must take care of 5 years from now?

Carter: Well, everybody goes to must take care of inflation when it comes. That’s fully inescapable. Whether or not you comply with the actions with the Federal Reserve, you may discover the costs on the pump rising. You’ll discover meals costs rising. Many of us are likely to suppose that the specter of inflation is returning and that we’ll enter an inflationary setting just like the ’70s and even doubtlessly just like the Forties, whenever you had important inflation and low rates of interest. If we’ve that, all people will discover it, and Bitcoin will not be the ordained resolution. Maybe you are going to go for some inflation and tax securities, or you are going to wish to personal gold, or you are going to wish to personal industrials or commodities. But definitely, individuals will really feel that no matter what their stage of curiosity is within the Bitcoin area or world macro or something like that. That’s one thing you simply innately really feel.

At this level, you have a look at the fiscal place — you have a look at debt-to-GDP ratio. You have a look at all these historic conditions the place the states are in comparable fiscal positions. It appears {that a} smooth default tends to be the one method out, so mainly, an inflationary transfer to devalue the forex that your money owed are denominated in. We as a society are tremendously indebted proper now. I feel we’ll must work our method out of that regardless. I feel it is a little bit overoptimistic to suppose that we are able to develop our method out of it the way in which we’d have executed within the ’40s and ’50s. I feel we’re set for a reasonably inflationary decade. I feel the Fed is telling us that, if we simply hearken to them. That will likely be one thing that can have an effect on common households no matter how carefully individuals comply with the headlines.

Chokkavelu: I promise listeners and viewers we’ll get to CryptoKitties in a second. But I’ve obtained a follow-up on this, the place, whenever you have a look at financial coverage and financial methods, do you see Bitcoin as not a alternative however just like gold, or do you see it as one thing that would turn out to be the default forex of the world reasonably than the U.S. greenback? Or do you see all of them type of taking part in collectively? Or do you’ve got a robust view on that?

Carter: Some individuals accuse us of claiming, “Well, Bitcoin cannot succeed except all sovereign currencies fail,” or one thing like that. That’s undoubtedly not my place, at the least. I see Bitcoin as similar to gold in a variety of its key respects. It is a nonstate onerous cash. When I take into consideration what a world reserve forex is, that tends to be accompanied by a hegemonic energy. I do not see a sovereign proper now standing behind Bitcoin and declaring its intent to put in it as a world reserve.

The greenback is the worldwide reserve as a result of the U.S. received World War II and created the Bretton Woods system after which backstopped the greenback with navy pressure and diplomatic and financial pressure and all of the establishments that they have been in a position to create in its picture. Bitcoin does not have that sovereign standing behind it. So I do not essentially count on it to emerge as the only world reserve forex. I do count on it to be a helpful medium for the settlement of worldwide commerce as belief breaks down on the worldwide stage.

As we enter this way more multipolar world the place commerce is now, and commodities are priced in not simply the greenback however the yuan and perhaps the ruble — because the greenback system frays, there’s going to be scope for quite a lot of co-existing currencies. And Bitcoin as a nonmanipulable forex, at the least from the availability perspective, is a superb choice to be a part of that blend. And so definitely, I feel there is a function for it within the worldwide system. I do not see it as being the only forex that denominates commerce, although.

Chokkavelu: Now, I’ve foreshadowed CryptoKitties. Let’s transfer to NFTs, nonfungible tokens. It’s one thing like a variety of issues during the last yr within the finance area — many people had by no means heard of per week earlier than, two weeks earlier than; then it is in all of the headlines. A nonfungible token is versus a fungible token like Bitcoin, the place all the pieces, like is like — a digital asset placed on the blockchain and offered. You can consider it as paintings. We’ll get to that instance in a second. Trading playing cards like NBA Top Shot. Jack Dorsey has been auctioning off his first tweet on Twitter (NYSE:TWTR). Probably the headline everybody’s learn now could be individuals promoting his digital paintings — a jpeg, mainly — for $69 million by Christie’s, a authentic public sale home, and that is some huge cash.

I assume the query for you is, as we hear about these NFTs, which definitely even a month in the past we weren’t listening to about, do you see them extra like Beanie Babies, the place it is extra of a fad? Or do you see it like Bitcoin, which I assume you suppose will likely be round many years from now?

Carter: Yeah, it is an incredible query. Technically, I’d say the notion of placing serial codes right into a public blockchain context, after which making them freely transmissible on chain, that concept of mainly placing a robust property-rights wrapper round some digital property, some digital content material, which is exclusive or uniquely addressable, that has existed since about 2016 within the crypto area. You have a look at Colored Coins on high of Bitcoin; that was the thought behind that. The Counterparty Protocol, the Omni Protocol, after which NFTs themselves — that is the extra Ethereum (CRYPTO:ETH) incantation to consult with the idea. Before, I feel individuals name them uniquely addressable belongings. We noticed them in 2017, after which in fact, they’ve had a resurgence this yr.

So it is not, strictly talking, a novel idea. In truth, it has been round for 5 years, I’d say there’s undoubtedly one thing there. I do not suppose the idea goes to fade away, as a result of actually, all it means is, let me take some knowledge and encode it right into a natively blockchain-based context such that I can financialize that knowledge and render it innately tradable and transferable. That’s fairly helpful.

Of course, you do have liabilities. You must have an issuer that claims OK, the serial code matches this piece of content material, or this music, or this video, or this paintings. So you truly do have that exterior dependency. So it is not natively digital like Bitcoin is, however it’s kind of a hybrid.

But I feel the thought may be very robust, particularly in case you have a decent linkage between the underwriter of the content material, the individual that’s creating it, and wrapping it, and placing it on chain, and the precise IP that is being put inside that wrapper. If we do not have that linkage, then you are going to have issues, since you’re making an attempt to take one thing which is dubiously owned, like, as an example I’m making an attempt to place a meme in an NFT, Pepe the Frog or one thing. There’s no actual proprietor of that. Of course, you’ve got the artist that created it, however it’s this cultural phenomenon, so who might be mentioned to personal it? I can not actually declare possession over that factor, however then I’m placing it in a robust property-rights context. So I’m wrapping one thing that is dubiously owned in a blockchain context that creates very robust assertions as to possession, and so you’ve got obtained conflicts there.

I feel it solely actually works in, as an example, a Top Shots context, the place you’ve got, the NBA has anointed a selected platform, and they’re saying, sure, that is our mental property. You cannot personal it. We’re not going to provide the rights to the IP in an effort to go and resell them, however you’ll be able to have the bragging rights to uniquely personal this version of this spotlight, mainly. So that is a really robust idea. The indisputable fact that it is on a public blockchain means you could then commerce it and financialize it, and there is an open API. That’s the entire notion of blockchain. Anyone can learn and write to the chain, which provides you actually fascinating interoperability potential.

So yeah, I feel the core idea behind an NFT may be very highly effective and more likely to stick round. Of course, there’s a variety of confusion as to what it is actually for, and an enormous quantity of misspent exercise and speculative exercise that is harking back to the Weimar Republic type of factor, and we see that in each asset class, not least of which, we see it in NFTs, too.

Chokkavelu: So if NFTs are going to be round and rising over time, however it’s onerous to select the winners, a query I’ve and I do know lots of people have is, Ethereum is the cryptocurrency and blockchain behind a variety of the NFTs. It’s already the No. 2 cryptocurrency by market cap behind Bitcoin. Do you suppose Ethereum is a picks-and-shovels play for NFTs? In different phrases, not selecting the winner, however it grows in utilization as this grows? Is {that a} viable factor, or are there flaws in that concept? Too easy?

Carter: Well, actually, within the crypto area, you simply attempt to not overintellectualize issues, as a result of I’ve seen lots of people that talked themselves out of positions and bitterly regretted that in years previous. Ethereum does have probably the most traction with regards to NFTs, after which decentralized finance and issues like that. In prior years, I may need advised you, no, there isn’t any direct causal connection between the utilization of Ethereum, the platform, after which Ether, the worth of Ether, the native forex there.

But truly, that is altering a little bit bit. This yr, the Ethereum management, or neighborhood, or no matter you wish to name it, determined to place in a change to Ethereum such that when there’s very excessive ranges of charges, a few of these charges get burned and mainly scale back the excellent provide of Ether, the forex of the community. So what that does is that creates a causal linkage between utilization of the platform, and customers pay tremendously excessive charges to make use of Ethereum. I made just a few transactions yesterday and paid $80 in charges, which I believed was extortionate.

Anyway, [laughs] customers pays. The highest variety of charges which were paid in a day has been $150 million on Feb. 23 this yr. Some of these charges will get routed into burning Ether, which are likely to quantity to a inventory buyback. You can consider it like that. Now there is a little more of a connection between the utility of the protocol and the precise underlying worth of the asset, Ether, which, that connection didn’t exist in prior years. So that is why my reply has modified. Like I mentioned, in case you do need publicity to the utilization of Ethereum and also you suppose that is more likely to enhance, Ether is a strategy to play that.

Chokkavelu: Got it. Switch a little bit again to Bitcoin. Specifically, rather a lot has been written lately in regards to the quantity of power used to mine Bitcoin. By design, it will get extra resource-intensive as we go alongside. How do you consider the environmental influence of Bitcoin mining in the long term? Are there options that you just suppose, or issues individuals aren’t factoring in, that mitigate the environmental influence?

Carter: Yeah, there’s completely mitigating components in case you look into how Bitcoin miners truly work together with the earth’s sources, for certain. Although earlier than we even get into that, I’ll simply say Bitcoin is a utility like many others, like aluminum smelting, or like all industrial course of that produces a service that we customers worth. And like anything that produces worth, it is power intensive.

So my normal stance on that is that the answer is to not take a line-item editor’s pink pen and undergo all of the usages of power in society, however it’s to decarbonize the grid itself. To render the grid greener by a mix of nuclear, hydro, and different renewables, mainly. We do not usually have this dialogue the place we have a look at usages of power and we proscribe them and say, yeah, truly, you aren’t allowed to look at Netflix right now as a result of I, a third-party, understand that to be wasteful. That’s not sometimes how that debate goes, and so I discover it curious that that is a stance that that debate is solely constructed in that method because it pertains to Bitcoin.

The different factor I’ll point out, the mitigating issue, is that Bitcoin buys power on a geography-independent foundation, which isn’t the case for the way in which that inhabitants facilities eat power. Typically, we want inexperienced power to be generated close to inhabitants facilities. You cannot simply put an enormous variety of photo voltaic panels within the Sahara after which pipe that over to Europe, as a result of the power decays because it leaves the supply. Bitcoin, then again, does not care the place the power is generated. As lengthy as there’s web, they’re going to purchase it. Bitcoin will purchase the power from the earth. That makes it extra appropriate for in any other case curtailed or in any other case wasted sources of power, specifically hydro. That’s why we see a variety of Bitcoin mining in Southwestern China, within the Sichuan and Yunnan province, as a result of that is the place an enormous quantity of hydro was overbuilt. There is a variety of hydro, and so you’ve got the choice to both let the water out of the dam and let it’s wasted or run the turbine and promote that extra power to Bitcoin.

Equivalently, you’ve got an identical scenario in Texas, and Wyoming, and different elements of the U.S., the place you’ve got gasoline that might be vented or flared, which is a byproduct of oil mining and oil extraction, and that gasoline might be put to make use of, put right into a generator. Some of these dangerous gases might be captured, after which Bitcoin might be mined. That’s net-neutral from an environmental perspective, and even net-positive.

Now, I’m not going to assert that no Bitcoin is mined with coal. Certainly, some is. But I feel, in the end, it is offering a service that is so helpful to the planet and to civilization essentially that these externalities are value it.

Chokkavelu: Got it. Do you suppose there are additionally ways in which simply the precise power utilization will go down over time in any respect, both by alternate options or simply the way in which issues evolve?

Carter: I do not consider any alternate options to proof of labor, that rhetorical taxing will simply transfer to some completely different consensus mechanism, does not make sense to me, as a result of I’ve by no means encountered a consensus mechanism which gives the identical assurances as proof of labor. I would not consider somebody that tells you proof of stake will simply repair it. It does not actually repair something. Proof of stake simply mainly installs a cartel and controls the chain, and that takes us again to some other cartel-based monetary system, which was the entire thing we have been making an attempt to resolve within the first place. If you need leaderless, decentralized consensus, it is advisable to have the nodes which can be in command of the ledger, sacrificing one thing of worth, and the purest expression of worth is power.

However, Bitcoin safety spend, the subsidy that’s supplied to miners, which thus causes them to eat power, that would scale back over time, 100%. We do not truly know what the trajectory of Bitcoin’s power expenditure will likely be. We do know that the Bitcoin subsidy, the precise issuance of Bitcoins, is declining each 4 years. Right now, at 6.25 Bitcoins launched per block, 144 blocks a day, that offers us an annual inflation price of 1.8%. That’s going to turn out to be half three years from now, after which lower in half once more 4 years subsequently, and so forth and so forth, till Bitcoin’s issuance has stopped.

That portion of the power outlay and that issuance accounts for 85% of miner income proper now. That’s going to scale back to zero, and we’ll be left with the fee-based system, the place the miners solely make income from transaction charges. It’s fairly doable that that fee-based system can be less expensive and thus present miners much less income, and therefore much less power expenditure than the present system. I can not assure that, however the level is there’s truly uncertainty as to the trajectory that Bitcoin power outlay goes to take.

Chokkavelu: Got it. Well, we solely have a few minutes left, so I’m going to do a few remaining questions. The first one is simply, is there a basic false impression about Bitcoin, or cryptocurrency, or blockchain that you just want extra individuals understood that we’ve not talked about already?

Carter: They are so many. The No. 1 one, and I’ll attempt to be transient, can be the notion that Bitcoin transactions have an embodied power price, and so we at all times see this per-kilowatt hour price of Bitcoin transaction. That’s fully not how Bitcoin works. Bitcoin is working no matter whether or not you or I select to transact. There’s a really diffuse and weak connection between my transaction that drives up the marginal clearing worth of block area after which the miner that chooses to eat a further kilowatt-hour of power.

The different factor is that Bitcoin transactions are remaining settlements. They’re probably not corresponding to Visa transactions, or PayPal, or Venmo, which happen on a really excessive stage of the fee stack. Bitcoin is the very base backside layer the place the basic remaining settlements are occurring, which is extra equal to Fedwire, or a settlement and clearing system like CHIPS or Fedwire. You cannot precisely examine the traits of Bitcoin to a retail-based fee system which doesn’t have a settlement embedded into it. Bitcoin transactions are funds and settlements. Bitcoin can settle over $1 billion in a single transaction. We’ve seen this occur quite a few instances within the final quarter. If you see somebody making a comparability between Bitcoin and Visa transactions, fully completely different methods, they’ve little or no in frequent.

Chokkavelu: We’ve been pretty accountable all through this interview. Now, let’s finish with a reckless, enjoyable query. Price of Bitcoin 5 years from now. It’s about $55,000 proper now, has been recorded.

Carter: Yeah. I do not know in case you can see it on my clock behind me.

Chokkavelu: No.

Carter: But it is obtained the worth of Bitcoin. I feel it is very believable that Bitcoin exceeds the market capital of all of the above-ground gold on the planet inside 5, 10 years. I feel it is very doable that quite a lot of central banks will add Bitcoin to their international trade reserves as a gold-like substitute or a gold-like asset. If these issues occur and the institutional adoption that I’m seeing continues to occur, and we enter this inflationary setting with a yield curve management, I feel the worth of Bitcoin 5 years from now could be far, far increased than the place it’s right now.

Chokkavelu: Right. To give individuals an thought, gold is, I consider, about $10 trillion in market cap, which is a few 10x for Bitcoin from right here.

Carter: Correct. Actually, there’s much less liquid Bitcoin round than individuals suppose. If you alter Bitcoin for the freely floating provide, you get a market cap of about $800 billion. It’s nonetheless below $1 trillion by way of the precise liquid Bitcoin that is obtainable on the market.

Chokkavelu: Got it. Possibly greater than a 10x. With that, we’ll finish. Nic, I wish to thanks for becoming a member of us right now. I feel you’ve got taught lots of people a variety of fascinating issues round cryptocurrency and the blockchain and Bitcoin specifically. Happy Bitcoin day.

Carter: Thank you. My pleasure.

This article represents the opinion of the author, who could disagree with the “official” advice place of a Motley Fool premium advisory service. We’re motley! Questioning an investing thesis — even one in every of our personal — helps us all suppose critically about investing and make choices that assist us turn out to be smarter, happier, and richer.

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